Litigation Solicitors Firm in London

Litigation Solicitors London, Ilford, East London,Kayani Legal is a top-tier firm of solicitors specialising in providing comprehensive litigation services and dispute resolution to clients in London and the UK. As one of the leading litigation solicitors in London, Kayani Legal is committed to delivering outstanding legal representation to clients across a wide range of industries and sectors.

Page Contents:

  1. Introduction to Civil Litigation 
  2. Initiating a Civil Claim 
  3. Case Management and Disclosure 
  4. Preparing for Trial 
  5. Trial Process and Representation 
  6. Judgment and Enforcement 
  7. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 
  8. Costs and Funding Options 
  9. How Kayani Legal Solicitors Can Help 
  10. Case Laws on Civil Litigation 
  11. Success Stories
  12. Frequently Asked Questions
  13. Why Choose Kayani Legal


Civil Litigation is resolving disputes between individuals, businesses, or organisations through the court system. It can be complex, time-consuming, and often costly. At Kayani Legal, our experienced litigation solicitors can guide you through every step of the litigation process, ensuring your rights and interests are protected. This detailed guide will provide

  • an overview of the civil litigation process,
  • the role of litigation solicitors, and
  • the various stages involved in pursuing or defending a claim in the UK.

Introduction to Civil Litigation  

What is civil Litigation? 

Civil Litigation is a legal process through which disputes between parties, including individuals, businesses, or organisations, are resolved in a court of law. These disputes typically involve claims for monetary compensation or specific performance, such as enforcing a contract. Civil Litigation is distinct from criminal Litigation, which consists of prosecuting criminal offences by the state.

Common types of civil disputes can arise in various contexts and may include

  • Contract disputes
  • Property disputes
  • Personal injury claims
  • Professional negligence
  • Employment disputes
  • Intellectual property disputes
  • Debt recovery
  • Injunctions and other equitable remedies

A legal professional specialising in representing clients in civil disputes is a litigation solicitor. They advise on the merits of a claim or defence, guide clients through the litigation process, and represent them in court proceedings. The role of a litigation solicitor may include the following:

  • Advising on the merits of a case
  • Drafting legal documents
  • Negotiating settlements
  • Managing the disclosure process
  • Preparing witness statements and evidence
  • Instructing barristers or other experts
  • Representing clients in court hearings and Trials. 

Initiating a Civil Claim 

Pre-action Protocol and Negotiation

Before commencing a civil claim, parties should try to resolve their dispute through negotiation and adhere to the relevant pre-action Protocol. It includes exchanging information, considering alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods, and attempting to settle without court intervention. Following the pre-action Protocol can help parties avoid unnecessary Litigation, save costs, and demonstrate their commitment to resolving the dispute amicably. 

Issuing a claim and serving documents

If negotiations fail, the claimant can initiate a civil claim by drafting and submitting a claim form and the required fee to the appropriate court. The claim form must include details about the claimant, defendant, nature of the claim, and the remedy sought. Once the court issues the claim form, the claimant must serve it on the defendant and any supporting documents within a specified timeframe.    

Responding to a claim 

Upon receiving the claim form, the defendant must respond within a specified period, typically 14 or 28 days. The response may include acknowledging service, defence, counterclaim, or a combination. If the defendant fails to respond within the required timeframe, the claimant may apply for a default judgment.

Case Management and Disclosure 

Case management conference

Following the exchange of pleadings, the court may schedule a case management conference (CMC) to review the case’s progress, set timelines for disclosure and discussion of evidence, and determine any issues requiring further direction. During the CMC, the court may also encourage parties to consider ADR and address cost management issues.

Standard and specific disclosure  

Disclosure is the process of exchanging relevant documents between the parties. Standard disclosure requires each party to disclose records that support or undermine their case and those that support or undermine the other party’s case. The court may order specific disclosure if a party believes that additional relevant documents have not been disclosed.

Managing documents and electronic disclosure  

Parties must maintain and organise disclosed manuscripts, including electronic copies, to allow for efficient review and analysis. Electronic disclosure platforms can streamline the process and minimise the costs of managing large volumes of documents.

Preparing for Trial 

Witness statements and evidence

Parties must prepare and exchange witness statements detailing the evidence each witness will provide at trial. Witness statements should be clear, concise, and directly address the relevant issues in the case. Expert witnesses may also be instructed to give opinions on specific technical or professional matters.  

Expert witnesses

Expert witnesses are professionals with specialised knowledge relevant to the case. They are appointed to provide independent, impartial opinions on specific issues. Parties may select a single joint expert or separate experts, depending on the complexity of the case and the court’s directions.   

Tribal bundles

Trial bundles and pre-trial checklists are organised collections of all documents required for the trial, including pleadings, witness statements, expert reports, and exhibits. Pre-trial checklists help ensure that all necessary steps have been completed before the trial commences, including the exchange of documents, the instruction of experts, and the submission of trial bundles to the court.

Trial Process and Representation 

Courtroom procedures

During the trial, the claimant and defendant will present their case, call witnesses, and submit evidence to the court. The judge will hear the arguments, review the evidence, and decide based on the case’s merits.

Presenting your case

The claimant and defendant, typically represented by a barrister, will present their respective cases to the court. It may involve opening statements, examining and cross-examining witnesses, giving documentary and physical evidence, and closing arguments. A strong presentation should be persuasive, clear, and well-organised, focusing on the key issues and evidence relevant to the case.

Cross-examination and closing arguments   

Cross-examination is questioning the opposing party’s witnesses to challenge their credibility, highlight inconsistencies, or elicit additional information. It can be a critical stage in the trial, as effective cross-examination can help undermine the opposing party’s case. Following the presentation of evidence and cross-examination, both parties will make closing arguments, summarising their case and highlighting the key points that support their position.

Judgment and Enforcement 

Understanding the judgment

After considering the evidence and arguments presented by both parties, the judge will issue a judgment. It may be delivered orally at the end of the trial or reserved for a later date. The assessment will outline the court’s decision on the merits of the case, the reasons for the decision, and any remedies awarded to the successful party.

Appeals process

If a party is dissatisfied with the court’s judgment, they may have the right to appeal the decision. Appeals can be based on errors of law, procedural errors, or the incorrect evaluation of evidence. The appeal process can be complex and requires a thorough understanding of legal principles and procedures.

Enforcement options

If the unsuccessful party fails to comply with the court’s judgment, the successful party may need to take enforcement action to recover the awarded remedies. Enforcement options include obtaining a charging order, attachment of an earnings order, or a third-party debt order. The appropriate enforcement method will depend on the case’s specific circumstances and the unsuccessful party’s assets.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 


Mediation is a confidential, voluntary process in which a neutral third party (the mediator) helps the disputing parties negotiate a mutually acceptable resolution to their dispute. Mediation can be a cost-effective and efficient alternative to Litigation, particularly for less complex disputes or those involving ongoing relationships between the parties.


Arbitration is a private, binding dispute resolution process in which an independent arbitrator (or panel of arbitrators) decides on the case’s merits after reviewing the evidence and hearing arguments from both parties. Arbitration can be a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to court litigation, particularly for complex or high-value disputes.


ADR methods, such as expert determination, early neutral evaluation, or adjudication, may be suitable for resolving specific types of disputes or those with particular characteristics. The choice of the ADR method will depend on the nature of the dispute, the parties preferences, and the potential benefits of each approach.

Costs and Funding Options 

Legal costs and cost-shifting

Litigation can be expensive, including legal fees, court fees, expert fees, and other disbursements. In most cases, the unsuccessful party will be required to pay the successful party’s reasonable legal costs and their own. However, cost-shifting is subject to the court’s discretion and may be influenced by factors such as the parties’ conduct during the Litigation.

Funding options for civil Litigation

Various funding options are available to parties involved, including legal aid, conditional fee arrangements (CFAs), damages-based agreements (DBAs), legal expenses insurance, and third-party funding. The choice of funding option will depend on the individual circumstances of the case and the client’s financial resources. 

Cost management and budgeting

Effective cost management is crucial in civil Litigation to ensure that legal costs are proportionate to the claim’s value and the case’s complexity. Parties may be required to submit cost budgets to the court, which will be used to manage and control the costs incurred throughout the litigation process.

How Kayani Legal Solicitors Can Help 

Expertise in Civil Litigation 

At Kayani Legal, our experienced litigation solicitors have a proven track record of successfully representing clients in various civil disputes. We possess in-depth knowledge of the UK civil litigation process and can navigate even the most complex cases skillfully and efficiently.

9.2. Tailored advice and representation 

We understand that each client and case is unique. Our litigation solicitors take the time to understand your specific needs and objectives, providing tailored advice and representation to ensure the best possible outcome for your case.

9.3. Commitment to client success  

Our primary goal at Kayani Legal is to achieve successful results for our clients. We are dedicated to providing exceptional legal services, clear communication, and a client-focused approach throughout the civil litigation process.

Case Studies and Success Stories: 

Case Study 1: 

Successful Resolution of a Commercial Lease Dispute

A client approached Kayani Legal when they disagreed with their landlord over a rent review clause in their commercial lease. The landlord sought a significant rent increase, which would have devastated the client’s business. The team at Kayani Legal meticulously reviewed the lease agreement and identified ambiguities in the rent review clause.

Using their expertise in commercial lease disputes, the team successfully negotiated with the landlord on the client’s behalf, presenting compelling arguments regarding the interpretation of the clause. The result was a mutually agreeable rent increase, allowing the client’s business to continue operating without excessive financial burden.

Case Study 2: 

Effective Representation in a Complex Civil Litigation Matter

Kayani Legal was instructed by a client facing a complex, multi-party civil litigation involving breach of contract, intellectual property infringement, and professional negligence. The client’s business faced significant financial and reputational risks if they failed in the Litigation.

The solicitors at Kayani Legal formulated a comprehensive litigation strategy, addressing each aspect of the case with precision and attention to detail. They liaised with multiple parties, negotiated settlements, and represented the client in court. Ultimately, the team achieved a favourable outcome for the client, securing a substantial damages award and protecting their business interests.

Case Study 3: 

Successful Eviction of a Problematic Tenant

A landlord sought Kayani Legal’s assistance in evicting a tenant who was causing substantial damage to their property and repeatedly failing to pay rent. The firm’s solicitors swiftly identified the most appropriate eviction procedure and prepared the necessary documentation.

Kayani Legal advised the landlord throughout the eviction, ensuring they complied with all legal requirements and avoided potential pitfalls. As a result, the landlord could regain possession of their property promptly and minimise further damage and financial loss.

Case Study 4: 

Securing a Favorable Outcome in a Contentious Divorce

Kayani Legal was instructed to represent a client who sought a fair and equitable financial settlement in a high-stakes divorce case involving substantial assets and complex financial arrangements. The solicitors at Kayani Legal meticulously analysed the client’s financial circumstances, including investments, property, and business interests, to build a robust case.

The team negotiated with the opposing party and their solicitors, using their expert knowledge of family law to advocate for a fair division of assets. After extensive negotiations, Kayani Legal secured a favourable settlement for the client, ensuring their financial security and stability.

Case Study 5: 

Winning a Personal Injury Claim after a Workplace Accident

A client approached Kayani Legal after suffering a severe injury in a workplace accident. The client’s employer had failed to provide adequate safety measures, resulting in a life-altering injury and significant financial hardship. Kayani Legal’s personal injury solicitors pursued a claim for compensation on the client’s behalf.

The team gathered evidence, including witness statements, expert reports, and medical records, to build a strong case against the employer. Through their diligent efforts, Kayani Legal secured a substantial compensation award for the client, covering their medical expenses, loss of earnings, and ongoing rehabilitation costs.

Case Laws on Civil Litigation 

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562 

Landmark case established the modern concept of negligence in tort law, which led to the “neighbour principle.”

 Caparo Industries plc v Dickman [1990] UKHL 2 

 Critical case on the test for determining the existence of a duty of care in negligence claims, outlining the three-stage test for establishing liability.

 Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 1 QB 256 

 The classic case in contract law illustrates the requirements for a valid contract, particularly regarding offer, acceptance, and consideration.

 Hadley v Baxendale (1854) 9 Ex 341 

 The seminal case in the law of damages establishes the principle of remoteness and the test for determining recoverable losses in breach of contract cases.

 Wooldridge v Sumner [1963] 2 QB 43 

 A notable case in tort law discusses the standard of care owed by professionals and the concept of “volenti non-fit injuria” (voluntary assumption of risk).

 Ruxley Electronics and Construction Ltd v Forsyth [1996] AC 344 

 A crucial case in contract law is determining the measure of damages for breach of contract in situations where the loss is non-financial.

 Hedley Byrne & Co Ltd v Heller & Partners Ltd [1964] AC 465 

 A leading case on negligent misstatement, establishing the principle of liability for pure economic loss caused by a negligent misrepresentation.

 L’Estrange v F Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394 

 A critical case in contract law illustrates the concept of exclusion clauses and the “signature rule,” which states that a person is bound by the terms they sign.

 Entores Ltd v Miles Far East Corporation [1955] 2 QB 327 

 A significant case in contract law addresses accepting and communicating contracts formed through postal and electronic means.

 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd v Selfridge & Co Ltd [1915] AC 847 

 A leading case on privity of contract, establishing the principle that a person can only enforce an agreement if they are a party to it.

 Central London Property Trust Ltd v High Trees House Ltd [1947] KB 130 

 A critical case in contract law introduces the doctrine of promissory estoppel, which prevents a party from returning to a promise that has been relied upon.

Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v Maher (1988) 164 CLR 387 

A prominent case in Australian contract law addresses the issue of estoppel in the context of incomplete contracts and pre-contractual negotiations.

Wrotham Park Estate Co Ltd v Parkside Homes Ltd [1974] 1 WLR 798 

A persuasive case on damages, introducing the concept of “Wrotham Park damages” or “negotiating damages” for breaches of restrictive covenants.

A v Home Secretary [2004] UKHL 56 

A groundbreaking case in public law concerning the legality of indefinite detention without trial and the relationship between the judiciary and the executive.

Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571 

A foundational case in contract law establishes the principle that domestic agreements between spouses do not generally give rise to legally binding contracts.


What is civil Litigation? 

Civil Litigation is resolving disputes between individuals or businesses through the courts. It covers various legal issues, such as contract disputes, negligence claims, and property disputes.

How does the civil litigation process work in the UK? 

The civil litigation process typically involves several stages, including pre-action protocols, issuing a claim, disclosure, witness statements, expert evidence, trial preparation, and the trial itself. Each stage has specific requirements and deadlines that must be met.

What is the role of a litigation solicitor? 

A litigation solicitor represents clients in civil disputes, providing legal advice, preparing documents, negotiating settlements, and representing clients in court hearings or alternative dispute resolution methods.

How long does civil Litigation take? 

The length of a civil litigation case can vary significantly depending on the complexity of the issues, the parties involved, and the court’s workload. A case can take anywhere from a few months to several years to reach a conclusion.

What are the costs involved in civil Litigation? 

Costs in civil Litigation can include solicitor fees, court fees, expert witness fees, and other disbursements. The losing party may also be ordered to pay the winning party’s legal costs, subject to the court’s discretion.

Can I settle a dispute out of court? 

Yes, parties in a civil dispute can attempt to settle through negotiation, mediation, or arbitration. Settling out of court can save time and costs and may result in a more favourable outcome for both parties.

What is a conditional fee agreement (CFA)? 

A conditional fee agreement, also known as a ‘no win, no fee agreement, is a type of funding arrangement where a solicitor agrees not to charge their client unless the case is successful. If the case is successful, the solicitor may charge a success fee in addition to their usual fees.

What is alternative dispute resolution (ADR)? 

Alternative dispute resolution refers to methods of resolving disputes outside the traditional court process, such as mediation, arbitration, or adjudication. ADR can be a more cost-effective and efficient way to resolve conflicts.

How can I enforce a judgment? 

Enforcing a judgment can involve several methods, such as applying for a charging order, attaching an earnings order, or instructing a bailiff to seize and sell the debtor’s assets.

What is the difference between small claims and fast-track/multi-track claims? 

Small claims are cases with a value of up to £10,000, whereas fast-track claims typically have a value between £10,000 and £25,000, and multi-track claims involve higher value or more complex cases. The procedures and costs of each track differ, with small claims being more informal and cost-effective.

Can I appeal a civil court decision? 

Yes, you can appeal a civil court decision if you believe the judge made a mistake in applying the law or if a procedural error affected the outcome. However, you will need permission to appeal, and the process can be complex and costly.

What are pre-action protocols? 

Pre-action protocols are steps that parties must follow before initiating a civil litigation claim. They encourage parties to exchange information, settle disputes, and narrow down issues in dispute to avoid unnecessary Litigation.

What is a Part 36 offer? 

A Part 36 offer is a formal settlement offer made by one party to another in civil litigation cases. If a party rejects the request and the case goes to trial, the rejecting party may be penalised in costs if they do not achieve a better outcome than the Part 36 offer.

How do I instruct a litigation solicitor? 

To instruct a litigation solicitor, contact a firm specialising in civil Litigation, such as Kayani Legal. They will discuss your case, advise you on the best action, and guide you through the litigation process. You will usually need to provide relevant documents and information about the dispute, and the solicitor will then conduct a thorough review of the case before proceeding.

What are interim applications? 

Interim applications are requests made to the court during civil Litigation for a specific order or direction. These can include applications for temporary injunctions, disclosure orders, or security for costs. Interim applications can protect your interests and ensure a fair trial process.

Can I recover my legal costs if I win the case? 

In civil Litigation, the general rule is that the losing party pays the winning party’s legal costs. However, this is subject to the court’s discretion, and the actual amount awarded may depend on factors such as the conduct of the parties and the reasonableness of the costs incurred. It is important to note that even if you successfully recover costs, you may still need to recover the total amount of your legal expenses.

What is a settlement agreement, and can it be used in civil Litigation? 

A settlement agreement is a legally binding contract between parties to resolve a dispute without proceeding to trial. It outlines the terms of the deal, such as payment amounts, confidentiality clauses, and any other relevant conditions. Settlement agreements can be used in civil Litigation to resolve disputes amicably, save time and resources, and avoid the uncertainty of a trial outcome.

What is alternative dispute resolution (ADR)? 

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) refers to resolving disputes outside the traditional court system. Standard ADR methods include mediation, arbitration, and negotiation. ADR can be a cost-effective and efficient way of resolving disputes, often leading to a quicker resolution and preserving relationships between the parties involved.

 How long does civil Litigation typically take? 

 The duration of civil Litigation can vary greatly depending on factors such as the complexity of the case, the availability of evidence, the court’s schedule, and the willingness of the parties to negotiate. Some cases may be resolved within a few months, while others may take several years. It is essential to discuss the expected timeline with your solicitor to understand the potential duration of your case.

What is the burden of proof in civil Litigation? 

In civil Litigation, the burden of proof lies with the claimant, who must prove their case on the balance of probabilities. It means that the claimant must demonstrate that their version of events is more likely than not correct. This standard of proof is lower than the criminal standard, which requires proof beyond a reasonable doubt.

Can I appeal a decision in a civil litigation case? 

Yes, you can appeal a decision in a civil litigation case if you believe the court made an error in law, fact, or procedure that affected the outcome. However, obtaining permission to appeal can be challenging, and you must demonstrate that there are valid grounds for your appeal. It is crucial to consult with a solicitor experienced in appellate matters to evaluate the merits of your case and navigate the appeal process.

The Litigation Process

The litigation process is divided into three stages: the issue of proceedings and filing of a defence, pre-trial procedures, and the trial.

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998

The Civil Procedure Rules 1998 govern the litigation process and have an overriding objective to resolve disputes justly and efficiently.

The Trial

The trial is held in open court, and the judgment is based on evidence and argument presented.

An Appeal

There is an option to appeal the judgment to a higher court.


Litigation can be expensive, including court and legal representation fees. It is essential to talk about funding with your solicitor.

Effective Dispute Resolution Services

At Kayani Legal, we understand that disputes can be stressful and disruptive. Our approach to dispute resolution is based on a legal landscape, and we work closely with clients to promptly achieve their goals through skilled negotiation.

Litigation Solicitors with a Proven Track Record

Our solicitors at Kayani Legal have a proven track record of success in complex and high-stakes litigation cases. Whether facing a trial, arbitration, or mediation, our solicitors are knowledgeable, skilled, and dedicated.

Exceptional Legal Support for Your Business

At Kayani Legal, we understand the importance of adequate legal support for the success of a business. Whether it’s contract negotiations, regulatory compliance, or representation in a commercial dispute, our solicitors have a deep understanding of the challenges businesses face and are equipped to provide exceptional support.

Types of Cases Resolved by Litigation   

  • Commercial disputes
  • Matrimonial matters
  • Claims against the state
  • Personal injury claims
  • Employment disputes

The Right Court for You

 The proper court for a dispute is determined by factors such as the value of the claim and the nature of the claim.

Who Can Approach a British Court?

 Any person with jurisdiction over a person or a claim has the right to approach a British court.

 Ask a question

 Why Us  

Expertise and Experience: 

 Kayani Legal boasts a team of highly skilled solicitors with extensive experience handling various civil litigation matters. Our solicitors possess in-depth knowledge of UK civil litigation law and stay up-to-date with the latest legal developments, ensuring they provide clients with the most accurate and relevant advice. By choosing Kayani Legal, you benefit from the expertise of a team that has successfully represented clients in various disputes, from straightforward cases to complex, high-value Litigation.

Client-Centred Approach: 

 At Kayani Legal, we understand that each client’s situation is unique and requires a tailored legal strategy. Our solicitors take the time to listen to your concerns, understand your goals, and develop a bespoke plan to achieve the best possible outcome for your case. We keep you informed throughout the process, ensuring you fully understand your options and make well-informed decisions. Our client-centred approach allows us to build strong relationships with our clients and achieve successful results.

Commitment to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): 

Kayani Legal recognises the value of exploring alternative dispute resolution methods before resorting to Litigation. Our solicitors are trained in ADR techniques such as mediation, arbitration, and negotiation and will actively encourage their use when appropriate. By prioritising ADR, we can help you resolve disputes more efficiently and cost-effectively while preserving relationships and minimising the stress associated with Litigation.

Transparent and Competitive Fees: 

Legal disputes can be expensive, and we understand the importance of providing clear and transparent information about our fees. At Kayani Legal, we offer competitive pricing structures that reflect the value of our services without any hidden charges. We provide clients with detailed fee estimates at the outset and regularly review and update our fee arrangements to ensure that they remain fair and transparent. Our commitment to transparency allows you to make informed decisions about your case and manage your legal costs effectively.

Reputation for Excellence: 

Kayani Legal has earned a reputation for providing high-quality legal services and achieving exceptional client results. Our firm has been recognised for its civil litigation expertise, and our solicitors have received numerous accolades for their professionalism and commitment to client satisfaction. By choosing Kayani Legal, you can be confident that a team of dedicated professionals will handle your case with a proven track record of success in civil Litigation.


Civil Litigation can be a complex and daunting process for those involved. However, with the guidance and expertise of experienced litigation solicitors like those at Kayani Legal, you can navigate the legal system with confidence. By understanding the critical aspects of civil Litigation, from initiating a claim to enforcing a judgment, you can make informed decisions and maximise your chances of success.  Contact Us Today!